Step #1 Unpack the Standard
“Standard 1. Demonstrates competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns” (SHAPE, 2014, p.26).
“S.1.E27 Jumping rope: Jumps a self-turned rope consecutively forward and backward with a mature pattern (S1.E27.2a)” (SHAPE, 2014, p.31).
What is the verb(s)?
The verbs to focus on are “demonstrate” and “jumps”.
What is the skill?
The skill to address is jumps, specifically jumping with a developmentally appropriate jump-rope.
What is the content?
The content is jumping a self-turned rope consecutively forward with a mature movement.
Step #2 Determine the Evidence
The student will demonstrate a mature jumping movement, self-turning a rope forward, using a developmentally appropriate jump rope.
Step #3 Select or Design the Assessment Tool
The assessment tool used to determine student performance will be a rubric.
Step #4 Determine Criteria for Competence
The following information on the mature jumping with a jump-rope movement comes from Rene Bibaud’s Complete Fundamentals of Rope Jumping DVD: A Teaching Guide (2008).
Feet: feet together with rope behind the body
Arms: arms extended out in front of the body with hands close together located between the waist and the shoulders, hands grip the handle with thumbs positioned on top and extending/pointing forward.
Arms: swing/push arms down and around lifting the rope up and over the head creating a rainbow arch with the rope.
Lower body: Knees bend as rope lifts over the head preparing for flight, knees begin to straighten as push from the balls of the feet create flight.
Feet: feet together, bodyweight balanced on the balls of the feet, feet push of the floor for flight and land softly absorbing impact, jump just high enough for the rope to pass under (1/4 inch to no more than 1 inch), process repeats with jump, jump, verbal rhythm.
Knees: stay slightly flexed throughout, knees adjusting from flight to landing (slightly straighten the flexed knee with flight and flex to absorb the impact on landing).
Arms: Arms and elbows stay by the side of the torso, elbows slightly bent, wrist turns the rope.
Step #5 Describe the Levels of Quality
“S.1.E27 Jumping rope: Jumps a self-turned rope consecutively forward and backward with a mature pattern (S1.E27.2a)” (SHAPE, 2014, p.31). This rubric will be assessing the forward rope turning with basic bounce.
Jumping rope is a popular activity for elementary school students and it is developmentally appropriate. Many elementary schools have enough jump-ropes to be made available for the students to use in physical education and recess. If a student can self-turn a rope and jump consecutively they may be more motivated to jump rope as a physical activity at recess or at home. Once the basic bounce is achieved the students may even further their learning and additional techniques such as backwards turning or a variety of tricks can be learned. Self-turning a jump rope is an elementary school outcome for all grades K-Grade 5.
The rubric will be used to assess where students performance is in relation to the standard and grade level outcome. The teacher will observe each individual student jumping rope and will record each students score. The students will measure an appropriate sized individual jump-rope by standing on the middle of the rope and pulling the handles or end of the rope up along each side of the torso. The handles or end of the rope should just touch the under armpits. There is some leeway in the measurement of the rope as some students may prefer slightly shorter but nothing should be measure shorter than the waist and no higher than the shoulders. Students should have prior experience measuring and practicing to find an individually appropriate length of jump-rope. In stations students will practice a number of other jumping preparation activities but will perform the forward turning jump at the station where the teacher is present. The teacher will observe the students at the station individually one at a time, checking performance in relation to the rubric. Each students score in each category will be recorded along with any additional notes. The students will receive feedback based on the assessment, not for a grade but for information that may help them continue to practice toward the mature pattern or extend their learning if they already meet all the criteria.
It is important to assess all learning domains. Assessment activities help measure, record and evaluate information on student performance towards stated objectives. According to Lacy (2011) the ultimate success of a school program depends on the teacher’s effectiveness in helping students achieve goals related to each of the four learning domains. The information gathered can help a teacher provide appropriate feedback, communicate achievements, evaluate and plan for future activities.
“The rating scale may also include cognitive or affective traits, as these have likely also been stressed in the instruction” (Lacy, 2011, p.133). Cognitive behaviors include students’ understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies and tactics. Describing the critical elements or cues of the ready position, movement initiation and basic bounce could be added to the rubric or included in the form of a checklist. Other cognitive behaviors such as describing knowledge of rhythm/pace, force and directions can also be included. Affective domain behaviors include students’ knowledge of social responsibility and appropriate behavior during physical activity. This may include behaviors such as practice skills with minimal teacher prompting, accepts responsibility for performing the activity, accepting feedback and working safely with the equipment could be observed and included in the rubric or checklist.
The rubric I developed applies to and fulfills the five purposes of rubrics according to Lacy (2011, p. 108-109). The first purpose is accomplished because the rubric identifies and describes in detail what excellence looks like including all its elements. The whole movement was broken into parts so individual differences in a performance can be addressed to help students achieve. The rubric also provides the information students need to view before an assessment or final performance so they know what to practice and are expected to know and do. The second purpose is achieved because the rubric defines the top level of performance and it will help students know where they are in relation to it. It also includes levels of differentiation so students can evaluate their own work. The information gained helps students understand what they are doing well and what elements they need to improve in. The third purpose is fulfilled because the rubric shows that I have thought through the expectation in relation to standards and grade level outcomes. This supports accountability for the P.E. program as well as helps defend the grades students receive. A video recording in addition to the rubric may even provide more evidence of student performance and increase accountability. The rubric can help when communicating with stakeholders. The fourth purpose is achieved with clear and easily observed behaviors identified for each level. This provides focus on the most important elements to look for within the performance and allows the assessor to be accurate and consistent with their markings. The students can also view the rubric and learn to assess themselves or others without bias because the varying levels have been identified and differentiated. The fifth purpose is achieved because the rubric provides valid reasoning and documentation for how I come up with a students’ grade. It also demonstrates instructional alignment because the rubric assesses the desired objective which is good practice and fair to the students.
Human Kinetics (Rene Bibaud). (2008). Rene Bibuad’s complete fundamentals of rope jumping DVD [DVD]. Available from http://www.HumanKinetics.com
Lacy, A. (2011). Measurement and evaluation in physical education and exercise science. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Society of Health and Physical Educators [SHAPE]. (2014). National standards and grade-level outcomes for K-12 physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.